Monday, May 25, 2020
Education: Keeping the Republic Together Our world today puts huge amounts of emphasis on education, specifically in order to get a better job, make more money or take enjoyment in what we do. We see a similar importance placed on education in SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ make believe city, as described in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic. However, Socrates has made it clear that this education is not for personal betterment or gain, but rather for the common good. Socrates has created his Republic with education of its citizens at the core. This education is put in place to serve many functions, such as development of preferred character traits for the warrior class, creation of equality between the sexes and as a means of indication as to what jobs would suit whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition to using education as a method of molding the warrior class, Socrates wishes it to be a means by which men and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s positions and levels in society are equalized. Ã¢â¬Å"[. . .] If we use the women for the same things as the men, they must also be taught the same things [. . .] Now, we gave the men music and poetry and physical training [. . .] Then we must give these two crafts, as well as those having to do with warfare, to the women also to use in the same way as the men use themÃ¢â¬ (451e, 452a). Because Socrates believes that nature is defined by capacities, men and women arenÃ¢â¬â¢t to be separated biologically but rather by their capabilities as members of the working and warrior classes. To ensure that each man and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s capacities are truly recognized they must be educated in the same fashion so as not to create an intelligence and job potential rift between the sexes. In this way education has brought men and women to an equal playing field, despite their apparent biological differences. A third goal of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ education policy is to create fair and just rulers, who extend themselves solely for the good of the city and not for personal gain. Socrates is convinced that becau se philosophers are the only people who do not wish to rule (they have better things to do with their time), theyShow MoreRelatedPoverty in the Dominican Republic Essay1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDevelopment throughout the life of a person depends on nourishment, shelter, education, and many other factors. A person cannot lead a full life without catering to their needs and interests, and living in poverty does not help. Poverty levels affect many people all over the world, specifically, the Dominican Republic. I recently took a trip there with my mother, and, during this trip, I noticed many dilapidated homes that housed under-nourished families. I feel that these situations do not helpRead MoreKeeping The Children Safe At The School Grounds1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto a Human Rights Reporter how his village tried to protect students at their school from an M23 attack: Ã¢â¬Å"There were rumors that the [M23] were preparing an attack on the school so that they could get the children for military service. So we got together, all of the parents, and put in place a security alert system where we left two parents outside the school and two others along the road from where the fighters came. As soon as one of those who went to check on the movement of [M23 forces] saw fightersRead MoreThe Republic, By Plato And Modern Day Social Classes1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the Republic, Plato divides social classes into three categories. These categories were Rulers, Guardians, and Craftsmen. These classes work together to ideally create Utopia. Plato believes social order must be maintained in order to have a fully functional society. These social classes are similar to the Feudal System, and modern day social classes. Each class has its own role, which if not carried out can disrupt the flow of society. Within each social class all men, women, and children hadRead MoreThe History of the Republic of Moldova1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat there were occupants on this land during the early Paleolithic Age, who eventually realized they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t alone and started cultural diffusion. By the end of the ice age, and through the Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages people started keeping records. Some of these cultures consisted of the Linear Pottery (ca 5500-4500 B.C), Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture (ca 5500- 2750 B.C), and the Yamna Culture (ca 3600-2300 B.C). Over the course of time, Moldova became a very popular tourist place, andRead MoreThe Dominican Republic-Central America-United Stats Free Trade Agreement1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) continues to have on GuatemalaÃ¢â¬â¢s preexisting social issue of child labor. In addition to identifying the general aspects of CAFTA-DR, an examination of the economic and social status of Guatemala as well as its established child labor status will be provided. In conclusion, the ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s direct involvement with this social issue will be discussed. An Outline of CAFTA-DR Signed in August of 2004, the Dominican Republic-Central America-UnitedRead MoreDamaris Schwarz Political Science Buckley, Michael 9 March, 2014 Madisons Model Power should1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis possible. One of the principles was to separate the powers of the government into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The separation of powers allowed each of the three branches to be independent with the exception of working together in order to govern. Congress passes laws, the president applies and manages the laws, and the courts elucidates the laws in distinct conditions. Madison clarified his beliefs in Federalist Paper No. 51 saying that in order for a government to existRead MoreThe Brief Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJunot DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, set in the late 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, tells a story of Oscar Wao, an overweight Dominican Ã¢â¬Å"ghetto nerdÃ¢â¬ , his mother and rebellious sister who live together in Paterson, New Jersey. Throughout the novel Diaz incorporates many different stories about each character that show acts of resistance. One of the most promine nt stories of resistance in the novel is through OscarÃ¢â¬â¢s mom; Beli, who is prompted by great tragedy, known as the Trujillo curse, to love atomicallyRead MoreEssay On Outer Space1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSpace Agency (ESA), and various intergovernmental space organizations, the Republic of Austria applauds the significant advancements of space technologies, yet remains deeply concerned about the long-term sustainability of space in relation to the growth of human activities at such exponential rates. Of equally as great importance as the threat of terrorist attacks, the happenings in outer space must be controlled while keeping in mind the provisions for the future, especially in forms of space explorationRead MoreGender Based Violence During And After Conflict1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrights and violence of war or conflict crimes, will continue to get support for women all around the world. This website has focused on these two concepts as a theme for their success in plac es across the globe such as Burma, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Kenya. This organization is compelling because it calls for justice for the women whose basic human rights have been violated, by men guilty of these crimes, specifically rape. The organization connects to our coursework chapter twoRead MoreCulture Of The Country Austria1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesworld many different cultures can be found, and while some countries do have similar cultures because of location, every country can offer a unique culture to experience. The Republic of Austria is a landlocked country located in Central Europe. Austria shares its borders with eight other countries including: Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. If an individual were to either plan a trip or move to Austria he/she would first need to learn about
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Carl Taylor Reflection Assignment by Parvin Ngala Dr. Carl TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the promoting the concept of Primary Health Care is insurmountable. This essay reviews Dr. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s lecture on Ã¢â¬Å"An Introduction to the roots of Primary Health Care; Path to Alma AtaÃ¢â¬ . It looks at his insights on Primary Health Care (PHC) and compares and contrasts them with other literature and videos on the same subject shared by Professor Henry Perry. This reflection will look at issues relating to the understanding of Primary Health Care (PHC). It will also look at the methodology of implementation of PHC as proposed and as implemented over the years. The issue of how PHC has been redefined or repackaged will be looked at and what the impact ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Dr. Taylor notes the change of focus from comprehensive to selective PHC. Dr. Perry mentions that there was a general push in implementing PHC as per the Alma Ata to identify and target urgent health problems. Programmes such as Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), Oral Rehydration Salts, GOBI-FFF, Global Fund, PEPFAR are examples of selective approaches that were implemented. This as opposed to the comprehensive approach which was meant to put in place systems and mechanisms that were to ensure that everyone had access t o health care. A recurring theme is the fact that Primary Health Care does not just start and end with preventing and curing diseases. Projects such as SEED-SCALE, Jamkhed project promote an integrated approach addressing health issues such as food supply, nutrition, water supply and maternal and child health and socio-economic issues which are often root causes for health issues in a community. These projects have incorporated economic empowerment initiatives as part of the overall Primary Health Care programs. Another thing consistent in all the literature, is that the fact of Primary Health Care did not start with the Alma Ata declaration. Dr. Taylor provides various examples of approaches, which in a way contributed to promoting best practices to what is now defined as Primary HealthShow MoreRelatedSchool Of Immunity And Infection7583 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pagesthese presented a unique opportunity and specific challenges that I had to take into account, address and conceptualise. I also present and compare my experiences in working with different size audiences at both delivery and feedback stages and my reflections on how this informs my teaching and shaping the ways to improve my future interactions based on the current observations. Trying to cover quite a broad canvas with a few brushstrokes would unavoidably result in some sections having to be less verboseRead MoreMarketing Communication in the Hospitality Industry34407 Words Ã |Ã 138 Pages......................................................... 59 6 Conclusions........................................................................ 60 7 Final Discussion................................................................. 62 7.1 Reflections .................................................................................. 62 7.2 Further Research ........................................................................ 62 References ................................................Read MoreOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words Ã |Ã 115 Pagesrest) will largely be ignored. The aim of this workshop is to generate understanding about organisations and the part that people play in them, by building bridges between theory and practice. The session(s) will take the form of an interactive Ã¢â¬ËlectureÃ¢â¬â¢; that is participants will be encouraged to enter into debate and comment as the session(s) proceed. An important component throughout is that you will be encouraged wherever possible to consider the material covered during the sessions in the lightRead MoreMastering Graduate Studies 1e32499 Words Ã |Ã 130 Pagesadvancements of these actions ebb and flow just as a baby learns to crawl and then walk. There can be many falls along the way; however, each fall provides an opportunity to observe where improvements may be needed. Your perseverance and openness to self-reflection and receipt of the Ã¢â¬Å"fallÃ¢â¬ can provide deeper introspection and application for future endeavors. During these attempts, you can realize more about yourself and be accountable for your part of the journey. Encouragement, as Kelly and Daniels (1997)Read MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pageslearning outcomes provide a guide to the different sections of the chapter. Stop and think Each of the chapters contains Ã¢â¬Ëstop and thinkÃ¢â¬â¢ boxes. These are designed to form the basis for brief discussion amongst group members or for personal reflection on some key issue raised in the text. Case studies These are designed to enable the reader to relate theoretical issues to organization practice, or to give a practical organizational example. Ideas and perspectives These are designed toRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesin the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence Ã¢â¬ ¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gabrielle Hecht and Paul N. Edwards 271 8 A Century of Environmental Transitions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Richard P. Tucker 315 About the Contributors Ã¢â¬ ¢ 343 Read MoreStrategy Safari by Mintzberg71628 Words Ã |Ã 287 Pagessynthesis, or as Jelinek (1979) put it in her study of strategic planning at Texas Instruments, in which she drew a parallel between the programming of strategy by contemporary planners and that of factory work almost a century earlier by Frederick Taylor and his efficiency experts: innovation can be institutionalized. As for the half premise, the CEO was to remain the architect of strategyÃ¢â¬âin principle. But in practice, this architect was not supposed to design the strategic plans so much asRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 PagesEvolution of Management Thought 45 F. W. Taylor and ScientiÃ¯ ¬ c Management Frederick W. Taylor (1856Ã¢â¬â1915) is best known for deÃ¯ ¬ ning the techniques of scientiÃ¯ ¬ c management, the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efÃ¯ ¬ ciency. Taylor was a manufacturing manager who eventually became a consultant and taught other managers how to apply his scientiÃ¯ ¬ c management techniques. Taylor believed that if the amount of time and effortRead MoreGame Theory and Economic Analyst83847 Words Ã |Ã 336 Pages(Paris) This edition published 2002 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor Francis e-Library, 2004. Ã © 1995 Ãâ°ditions Dalloz English edition: editorial matter and selection Ã © 2002 Christian Schmidt; individual chapters Ã © the contributors All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprintedRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesby adding more application questions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Revised the PowerPoint slides. A MESSAGE TO STUDENTS: Why Focus on Management Skill Development? Given that a Ã¢â¬Å"skill developmentÃ¢â¬ course requires more time and effort than a course using the traditional lecture/discussion format, we are sometimes asked this question by students, especially those who have relatively little work experience. Reason #1: It focuses attention on what effective managers actually Ã¢â¬Å"do. Ã¢â¬ In an influential article, Henry Mintzberg
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ ultimate goal in reaching his conclusions stem from the way he thought. As long as there was no doubt to reach a conclusion, he was right; so, his process of radical doubt is fully employed in his Meditations. Dismissing all knowledge that could be doubted however slight, Descartes sought out to find knowledge that held absolute certainty through questioning. His ultimate question, however, do we actually exist? How do we know? In his Meditations, one feels that Descartes is sitting around pondering ideas, and becomes aware that hes being aware. He is interested in this state of awareness, and notices hes thinking about something or another. He believes or hypothesizes that either God Is (existing), and is Good, hence would not deceive him; a bad force or entity might be trying to trick him; in either case he, Descartes, is thinking. He believes he has some control over what he thinks; thus, God is not fooling him and an evil force is not controlling him. So Descart es asserts, if one thinks, one has to be somebody to be thinking, so one exists. This conclusion is brought up through a process known as radical questioning or radical doubting; Descartes is trying to find something that cannot be found doubtful. He decides he is (exists), and that he is neither influenced totally by either God or a malevolent force. But how does Descartes reach these conclusions? In Meditation I and Meditation II, Descartes also argues that our conventional experiences of theShow MoreRelatedDiscourse on Descartes Skeptical Method1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSebastian Gumina Paper Topic #1 DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Skeptical Method DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ method offers definitive conclusions on certain topics, (his existence, the existence of God)but his reasoning is not without error. He uses three arguments to prove existence (His and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s) that attempt to solidify his conclusions. For his method to function seamlessly, Descartes needs to be consistent in his use of the method, that is, he must continue to doubt and challenge thoughts that originate in his own mind. Read MoreOntological Arguments for the Existence of God Essay1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the fifth Meditation, Descartes presents his second argument for the existence of God. Descartes holds that existence is perfection and so, it can be a predicate for God. I will first explain what is the ontological argument for the existence of God. Next, I will discuss why Descartes decides to bring God into His method of philosophy. I will then try to argue that existence is a perfection and that as a predicate for God, existence reveal certain true about God. Ontological argument tries toRead MoreDescartes: Proofs of God/Deception and Error Essay1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDescartes: Proofs of God/Deception and Error Instructions: First: Analyze and evaluate the two proofs of Gods existence. How are they different? Is one more convincing than the other? Why did Descartes think he needed two proofs? Do they do different work for him? And secondly: Does Descartes give a satisfactory account of human error, given a perfect and divine creator? Are Descartes arguments convincing, or does it still seem unnecessary and less than perfect that God created us withRead MoreDescartes and the Existence of God751 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Descartes: The existence of God Over the course of his treatise Discourse on the Method, the philosopher Rene Descartes attempts to refute radical skepticism, or the idea that we can know nothing with the mind, because what we consider reality may simply be a delusion or a dream. Descartes begins, however, by taking a posture of doubting everything, and then attempting to discern what could be known for certain. Rather than attempting to affirm his existence, I thought that a procedure exactlyRead More Descartes Meditations Ontological Argument Essay1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDescartes Meditations Ontological Argument Descartess fifth Meditation argument for Gods existence relies on an untenable notion that existence is a perfection and that it can be predicated of God. I shall first explain what Descartess argument for Gods existence is, and then present his argument in propositional form. I will then attempt to support the argument that existence is neither a perfection nor a predicate of God. In our thoughts we apprehend ideas of things. These ideas mayRead MoreEssay on Descartes Proof of Gods Existence1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe existence of God has always been an arguable topic. DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ however, believed that he had proof of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence through an intense analysis of the mind. Throughout this paper I will discuss what he has provided as proof and some of the complications that arise throughout his argument. You can find DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ proof of the existence of God in the Third Meditation. Although to understand this argument you have to look at his previous meditation where he begins to build his argument with theRead MoreDescartes Epistemology1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEpistemology ------------------------------------------------- Carefully explain DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ cogito and his attempt to build his knowledge structure from the ground up. (Be as succinct as possible.) Does Descartes succeed or fail in that attempt? Justify your answer in full. DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Epistemology This essay attempts to explain DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ epistemology of his knowledge, his Ã¢â¬Å"Cogito, Ergo SumÃ¢â¬ concept (found in the Meditations), and why he used it [the cogito concept] as a foundation when buildingRead MoreThe Theory Of God s The Same Meditation 1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesevil genius does not want to be known, so it tricks Descartes and everybody into thinking that a subject with the name of God may be the true creator. He did not prove otherwise throughout his Meditations. The questions of whether or not God exists has not been proven with profound proof. He many have been deceived all throughout his Mediations. In the same Meditation, Descartes raises the idea of the existence of human beings. Their existence derived from a infinite substance, which is God. GodRead More RenÃ © Descartes Argument on the Existence of God Essay1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRenÃ © Descartes Argument on the Existence of God The problem with RenÃ © Descartes argument about the existence of God has to do with his rationalist deductive reasoning. Descartes deduces that truth about the existence of God lies within his idea of a perfect God and Gods essence (as a perfect being who must exist in order to be perfect). A rationalist philosopher, Descartes discounts human knowledge as a product of our sensory data (our senses) but supports the epistemological stance thatRead MoreDescartes s Meditations On First Philosophy986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhat makes us who we are. What is it inside of us that allows us to exist? Sometimes the answer is as simple as looking inwards, or as RenÃ © Descartes would call it, meditation. These Ã¢â¬ËmeditationsÃ¢â¬â¢ are moments of reflection, time spent with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, and time to figure out where one is placed within the world. During one of these meditations, Descartes creates the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"cogito ergo sumÃ¢â¬ , I think, therefore I am, in his monumen tal book, Principles of Philosophy, though it was written in another
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Introduction Individuals tend to differentiate significantly in conditions of how they observe and assess their personalities abilities. There are individuals who observe themselves more positively and those more realistically. Research has exhibited that an individual possessing an enhanced view of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept through social comparison tends to lead to extremely favorable outcomes. Social Comparison Theory The theory that I had chosen to discuss and research about would happen to be the Social Comparison Theory. In this theory, it simply asserts that the process in which people learn about themselves by comparing themselves to other members of society. In addition, it has been assumed that individuals contain a desire to compare their own opinions and abilities. This can be seen through comparison via physical reality or by through other people. However, through studies it had been concluded that individuals were assumed to in normalcy have a preference of comparing other individuals which were similar to themselves. Furthermore, (Kruglanski Mayseless, 1990) reports that there is a three-level analysis of social comparison. The first level, which is the most universal is a judgmental process meaning that social comparisons as judgments need to be thoroughly processed. The second level, which is less universal documents that social comparison as grouping, allocates a specific type of judgment structure. The third and last level, which the least universal relates to the particular contents of a specified comparison. Moreover, it can be noted that there are three forms of social comparisons: first being that individuals tend to minimize comparisons (Brickman Bullman, 1977). Second form being upward social comparison where an individual is comparing him/herself to another individual better then them, in which motivates them to work harder and perform better in order to reach that particular individuals level. Lastly, third form being downward social comparison where an individual is comparing him/herself to another individual worse off. Threatening oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept, individuals tend to have a preference to compare him/herself with individuals they recognize as worse off then them. Due to this, increase in subjective well-being tends to occur because downward social comparison seems to enhance self-concept and minimize anxiety (Gibbons, 1986). Event In order to understand social comparison theory better, I am going to bring up an event that relates to it. I was volunteering at the Chicago Rehab Institute a year ago and a patient I was working with had been diagnosed as paraplegia due to an accident. I remember one day, he was mentioning to me that to cope better with his condition, he compared himself to his roommate who was far worse off then he was in the sense his roommate had ALS. This illustrates downward social comparison. Another event, but illustrates upward social comparison occurs with my brother. When he was in high school, he was on the track team and he was running the 400 meters. After he had finished the race at the state competition, he had compared his score to that of the high school state record for the 400 meters. Article In addition, to understand this theory even better, it can be related to an empirical article I had found, which basically discusses about social comparison in everyday life. In the article, the author details a new apparatus for students to record their social comparison methods. This new apparatus is called the Rochester Social Comparison Record. It had been found that 1) the direction of comparison differed with the correlation in conjunction with the target; 2) pre-comparison mood had led to an increase in upward compared to downward comparison; 3) downward comparison had increased subjective well- being, while upward comparison had decreased it; and 4) high self-esteem individuals participated in more social comparisons. Furthermore, the authors had concluded three significant findings. First, related comparison tends to be normal with close friendship, while non-related comparisons tend to be normal with distal friendship. Second finding is that comparison target will be inter-correlated to pre-comparison affect. For example, if a person is experiencing a downward comparison, it is a low-subjective well being while if a person is experiencing an upward comparison, it is a high-subjective well being. Third finding is that downward comparison will greatly make an impact on subjective well being, while upward comparison most likely will be directed to negative affective reactions. The last finding that the authors had discovered is that self-esteem and the target of comparison is highly correlated to each other respectively. Looking at downward comparison, individuals that display low self-esteem when their self-esteem is in jeopardy will associate in a downward spiral. Likewise, with upward comparison, individuals that display a positive self-esteem when their self-esteem has significantly increased, will associate in an upward spiral. Conclusion Recommendations It can be noted from the article, events, and theory that their related and connected in a way. All three indicate that within social comparison, human beings tend to compare themselves with others when they lack the ability to assess their opinions and abilities on their own. Moreover, all three exhibit a relation that there are two types of comparisons within social comparison. First being upward social comparison, where an individual compares him/herself with that of another individual who is better off. Second being downward social comparison, when an individual compares him/herself with that of another individual who is lesser off. Furthermore, from the article I had found limitations are always present in any research. The subjects utilized in the study were predominantly first semester freshman and was a class requirement, so instead of truly reflecting their beliefs for researchers to see, they could have just not been truthful just to pass the class. In addition, more women than men had been in participation throughout the study and this could have had an impact on the overall findings and conclusion to how social comparison is used in everyday life. Lastly, comparisons tend most likely to be understated and so with this, it was taken into account that not every individual had reported every instance of social comparison. Concluding, it can be seen that human beings hold an urge for self-evaluation and that human beings have a desire to measure their opinions and acquire some ideas of how skilled they are. This is why social comparison theory is an integral part of how people go about their lives everyday.
Friday, April 10, 2020
Iran-Iraq conflict causes and consequences (1980-88) INTRODUCTION : This conflict began when Iraq invaded iran in 1980 followed by border disputes and IrqÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to become dominant Persian Gulf state and the Iranian revolution at that time .but they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get the control they only occupied some portion of iran and then repelled by iran .Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with Resolution 598, Causes : The causes of Iran Iraq conflicts can be attributed to wide range of issues Political causes-historical claims of territory, Shatt Al Arab waterway dispute and result of six day war Economic causes- occupying of Khuzestan, religiousÃ Cultural causes- cultural differences between Iran and Iraq and results of the Iranian revolution Long term causes: Historical disputes: The historical disputes over the shatt al arab waterway and border can be traced back to the Islamic period that occurred in 7 th century. We will write a custom essay sample on Iran Iraq war causes and consequences or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page invasions and counter invasions occurred between Mesopotamia and Persia regions.IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s population was primarily composed of arab with small minority of kurds.IranÃ¢â¬â¢s population was more diverse Persian,kurds,baluchis,turkmans and other tukic groups. In 1420 ad safavid empire began rebelling against dominance of Ottoman empire in Middle east. Ottomoan empire was In control over Iraq and safavid empire was in control of curren Iran.distinct branches in Islam (shai and sunni)became more distinct.resulted in the beginning of present day nationalism.in 1639 ad treaty of zuhab border lines between countries had always been vauge when described in the treaty of zuhab.the treaty was signed between former Ottomon empire (the Iraqis)and the safavid empire(Iran).treaty of zuhab stated that the border between Iran and Iraq would run between the zagros mountains and the tigris river.this treaty acted as final solution to the hundred year territorial dispute between the two countries.it grants the Persians tsoutheren Caucasus and all of Mesopotamia to the Ottomans the treaty however did not end the animosityÃ between Iran and Iraq.18 additional trations were digned before the turn of the twentieth century. In 1847 treaty of ezerum,was signed by two countries deeming the water way as a border.russian and Britain assumed roles as medi ators to 1847 treaty.Iraq would maintain complete control of this waterway and territories to the east and Iran would only granted minimal access to the river.however Iran only agreed upon these terms in exchange for two Iraqi cities.however shortly after Iran began to push their claims west.wanted to maintain part, if not all of shatt waterway and have unlimited access. In 1937 a revised treaty was established between the newly established and independent Iran and Iraq.the boundaries were to run along the left bank(east bank) of shatt al arab,except for a stretch of 8 kilometers in front of Abadan(Iranian town).Iran and Iraq maintained a somewhat friendly relationship. relationship was later disrupted by instability of monarchies. Border and shatt al arab water way disputes. Shatt al arab water way is responsible for the connection between the Persian gulf with Iranian ports of khorramshan and Abadan and Iraqi port of basra.the shatt al arab is of utmost significance as it acts as the current IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s only access to the Persian gulf.the Russians supported the desired claim of the eastern bank waterway to the Persians while the Britain backup the Ottoman in occupying both banks.the support from the Russians and bretain in the occupying for the river would give them each an upper hand with their trading partners Shatt al arab treaty 1847 treaty was established and stated that the shatt would act as boundary khorramshahn and Abadan.Iraq would maintain complete control of this waterway and Iran would not be granted access to the river.howerver,Iran only agreed upon these terms in exchange for the two Iraqi cities.they turn reducd their dependence on the river. Short term causes: Result of six day war: The participation of Iraq during the October war,more commonly referred to as the six day war,under the governing of the Baath party was quite minimal.their minimal participation is primarly attributed to iarqÃ¢â¬â¢s poor preparation.this resulted in IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s mentality to improve their warfare andÃ expand military.iraqpurchased 1600 additional tanks from the USSR and 200 more aircrafts.Baath party promoted saddam to head of military competence,essentially giving saddam the right to complete military control. Nationalism rivalry for power: Result of Iranian revolution: shah of Iran was overthrown in 1979 by radical Islamist and communist.ayatollah Khomeini came into power . the Iranian government led by shah was previously pro-western and anti-socialist turned into highly religious and theocratic government.Israel and the united states were now seen as enimies.mentality of Iranian government was drastically altered. Quest for dominance: with overthrowing of shah dictatorship,the shiÃ¢â¬â¢i muslims of Iran saw this as the new beginning for the country.they developed a strong sense of pride and nationlisam in their country.ayatollah Khomeini accused saddamÃ¢â¬â¢s regime of being anti-Islamic and overly secular. Looking to overthrow Iraqi regime. That was part of khomeininiÃ¢â¬â¢s border plan of expanding the Islamic revolution throughout the middle east. Saddam Hussein ,in Iraq was at the same time looking to establish himself as a great leader in the arab community.their neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s in the west were seen as their largest threat.Iran was viewed as military vulanarable as result of their recent revolution in 1979.it is difficult to pinpoint precisely to when thewar broke out.earliest forms of violence between two countries are the attack of Iranian villages of khmoneini supporting Iraqis in 1979 by Iraq and the support of rebel groups and the deportation of Iraq born Iraqi civilians.majority of these acts of violence occurred at the border between Iran and Iraq The occupation of Khuzestan: Another geographic region that was considered valuble in addition to the shatt al arab ws Khuzestan.Iarq strategized to sieze control over Khuzestan(occurd in 1980),which is located in south western Iran across from the waterway.khuzestan is rich with oil and is responsible for majority of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s oil supply.saddam was convinced that the capture of this valuble piece of land would result in a new Iranian revolution that would call for the instillations of a government whose intrests were more comparable with IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s. Religious and governmental differences: Difference in ideologies and religious beliefs between Iran and Iraq was an outstanding issue.newly established leaders caused an increased level of nationalism. The invasion of Iran by saddam Hussein acted as culmination to fighting. Effects during the Iran Iraq war: In the final stages of war(1987-1988) no clear military gain for either sidesÃ¢â¬â¢1983-84 stalemate. Iraq began facing difficulties prior to 1987.lacked capability to counter attack Iranian offensives. outnumbered by population. Iran strengthened by war strong initiative in 1987 attacks seeming better able to survive along conflict.since regaining all lost territory in 1982,Iran was on the offensive until 1988.course of war changed radically in spring of 1988 moving nations to cease fire. Series of Iraqi victories in 1988 compelled Iran to accept previously refused ceasefire agreement. Taker war: Tanker war of 1984 Iraqi attempt to sabotage Iran.strait of hormuz one of the most strategically important passages for oil transport. United states threatened to invade Iran if they closed strait. Iraq attacked Iranian kharg island iol tankers in 1984.iran retailed by attacking tankers of all countries that supported Iraq. Both nations attacked oil tankers and merchant ships in an effort to bankrupt opponent. US involvement lead to death of 290 innocent passengers on mistaken airline,strike on 5 oil vessels.damaged Iranian American relations. War of cities: Stalemate 1985-1987,Iraqi forces better trained ,out numbered by Iranian forces,civilinas became new target.started by Iraq February 1988.Iraq attacked 65 Iranian citites in 42 days 8 missile targets killed 65 children in an elementary school. Iranian civilian aircrafts,trains,Teheran oil refinery were destroyed . Iraq launched 520 scuds at Iran, received 177 in return.in march Iran retaliated by launching 3 scud missiles at Baghdad.gave Iraq excuse to sharply escalate war. Iran was losing morale after 8 years ofÃ conflict. Repeated offesives exhausted Iranian capabilities for the war. Iranians no longer supported the war. Publicizing the war pushed for UN ceasefire .Iran ambiguously accepted.USSR and China denied US,UK and FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s arms embargo. Iran angrily denied USSR limited missile ceasefire. Iraqi Kurdistan: Iraqi controlled portion. Historically oppressed by the Iraqi government. Kurdish support for Iran angered Iraq. Iraq launched support for Iran angered Iraq. Iraq launched heavy poison gas attacks on halabjah, march 1988. Khomeini showed will to accept resolution 598 Ã¢â¬Å"happy are those who have departed through martyrdom Ã¢â¬ ¦.unhappy am I that I have drunk this poisoned chalice Ã¢â¬Å". United States only nation that did not publicly condemn use of chemical warfare. Final stages Ã¢â¬âmoving towards ceasefire: 1988 critical turning point in warÃ¢â¬â¢s outcome. 3 factors: that played a major role are decline of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to continue fighting due to political and military losses .western presence in gulf combined with IranÃ¢â¬â¢s diplomatic isolation. critical changes to IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s armed forces and methods of warfare. Cease fire: Iran accepted peace resolution 598 on august 20 1988, both sides agreed to pre-war boundaries. Important aspects of Resolution 598: Accept ceasefire and withdraw forces. Settle border disputes under UN held negotiations. Same terms as 1982 resolution. final exchange of POW in 2003. Effects after war: In Iraq: Political effects: Immediately rebuilt broken ties with Saudi Arabia ,Kuwait , Bahrain . started relations with European countries. Diplomatic problems with west untouched. UN was looking to contain Iran. New Iranian leadership (1989) ayatollah khomenini dies, ali Khamenei elected as supreme leader of Iran by assembly of experts. Akbar Rafsanjani elected as president. Adopted economy first policy.attempted to boost foreign investment and trade through liberalizing Iranian markets. Supported privatization policy. Economic reforms helped spur Iranian regrowth. Economic effects: Collapsing economy, futher declined collapse from Islamic revolution. More than 1 million casualities. Exhausted foreign reserves (14.6 billions to 1 billion). Saudi Arabia vetoed Iranian OPEC attempt to cut production and raise prices. Cultural effects: ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a muslims continued to dominate. Iranian revolutionary guard corps created to defend theocratic rule (Shiite national guard). Before his death, khomenin tried influencing sunni Iranians with his own theocratic beliefs. The 90s saw an imbalance of religion and republicanism. Technological effects: Outcome of war influenced scientific advancements in Iran.experianced technological and research revival.has fastest scientific growth rate. In Iraq: political effects: US-Iraq ties. Us largest western supporter of Iraq during the war. Iraq believed it could act without consequence in Gulf war.president bush signed NSD26, US wants to maintain friendly relations with gulf oil states.national security for US and stability in Gulf. Iraq relied on the oil exports to rrebuild economy .law of supply states that as supply increses, price decreses (vice versa). Kuwait refused to implement quota. IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s economy unable to rebuild from war reparations. Accusations of Kuwait drilling illegally in Irqa oil fields. Lead to invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Cultural effects : Hussein introduced austerity measures to mobilize population for war effort. All citizens required to donate blood. To gain Shiite support, more were let into the government . brought support by making generous contributions of shia waqf.in Kurdish genocide systematic attacks against Kurdish population. US assisted Iraq in avoiding repercussions from worldwide condemnation. mustard gas, sarin chemical weapons. massacred 50000-100000 civilians. destroyed 4000 villages,4500 schools mosques, hospitals and 27 churches. War brought international attention to Kurdish oppression. UN passed resolution 688 in 1991,condemning Iraqi oppression of Kurd. demanded access to humanitarian aid. Economic effects: 600 billions debt accumulated with the destruction of economic developments. relations with allies grew tense as Iraq unable to pay back debts. Slowed GDP growth. eventually became most indebted poor country in the world. Conclusion: 8 years of fighting in vain,for both sides.this is the deadliest conflits since world war II.both countries were devasted economically. Iran seemed to have learnt from mistakes, while bankrupt Iraq found it self involved in another conflict .in 1990,saddam Hussein recognized Iranian rights over eastern half of shaat-al Ã¢â¬âArab. First widespread use of chemical warfare since 1918.and Iran became more militaristic and anti-western.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Doing Business in Japan FACTS STATISTICSHistoryDuring the 1500's, Japan was divided and at war with itself. Three leaders came along, the first being Oda Nobunaga, who is known for being merciless. He showed no mercy to his adversaries and, through this ruthless approach, helped end the wars and created a foundation for peace. Vying for control and assuming leadership after Nobunaga was Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who was known for his intelligence. He built social structure and earned respect as a true leader. Gaining control after Hideyoshi was Tokugawa Iyeyasu. He had waited almost four decades for his turn as Shogun and, through patience and perseverance, the rewards finally came.(Meyer)For the next 200 years, Japan endured a period of isolation from foreign influence. After the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa with the US, Japan opened its ports, beginning a period of industrialization and modernization. In the late 1800's and early 1900's, Japan became a regional military power, defeating the forces of both China and Russia.Figure 3Japan then occupied the smaller surrounding countries of Korea and Taiwan. Upon its occupation of Manchuria in 1931, Japan proceeded to launch a full scale invasion of China. Following its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and ally of the US.GovernmentJapan's form of government is parliamentarian democracy under the rule of a constitutional monarch. The Prime Minister is the chief government officer although Japan's emperor continues to retain his throne as a symbol of national unity. However, the true governing power resides in its legislature, also known as the National Diet. The legislature consists of the House of Representatives and House of Councilors. The House of Representatives is responsible for passing bills and is considered the more powerful of the two branches. There are 480...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Assignment #2 - Statistics Project Example It depicts the representation of distinct graphical illustration of the underlying positive kurtosis. The dataset is mainly linked to the left of the mean of satisfaction depicting a general level of democracy among the populace (Goodwin, 189-239). The ordinal scales are constantly discrete in nature and is applicable to existing model of corresponding data analysis. Nominal variable are number of employees and corresponding level of democracy. The stage of democracies of the population is adversely skewed as compared to the underlying interval variable. This scatter plot offers a platform for representation of the underlying set of dataset and commonly derived prior to analysis of the linear correlation coefficient of the prevailing variants data (Goodwin, 189-239). The level of democracy is inversely proportionate to the prevailing number of the underlying workers in the company. The relationship is adversely related concerning extends of democracy. The 95% confidence level around the mean for the interval variable is 5.466553063. The upper limit of 5.466553063+ 0.095678992 whilst the lower limit is 5.466553063- 0.095678992 thus all the existing 95% contains the mean Bar chary helps in summarization of the prevailing categorical data in the exploratory data assessment of data examination to exhibit fundamental distribution of the data convenient format. This mainly represents the underlying ordinal and corresponding nominal data. Confidence 95percentage level encompasses the underlying the existing populace. The standard deviation of democracy is 206.5344828. The skewness and kurtosis of the dataset is -0.608361087 and 1.131668626